Second Generation of Computer

Second Generation of Computer : (1956-1963)

A big revolution in electronics occurred in Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1947 with the invention of the transistor by Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley. Since the transistor has no filament burning, the transistor made of germanium semiconductor material is highly reliable compared to the tube. They occupy less space and use only a tenth of the power required by the tube.

  • Timetable: 1956 - 1963
  • Use: Transistor

Second generation of computer

 They can also switch from 0 to 1 state in some microseconds, around 10th-time tubes are required. Thus, the switching circuits for computers made with transistors were nearly ten times more reliable, which was separated from one-tenth power.

Therefore, the reliability of a switching circuit of a computer made of a transistor is about 10 times reliable and 10 times faster, and one-tenth of the power consumption is about one-tenth of the space, which is ten times cheaper than a device using a tube.

Computer manufacturers turning from transistors to tubes. Second-generation computers emerged in 1955 with the use of transistor instants of vacuum tubes in computers, and this generation lasted until 1965.

Details about Second Generation of Computer

During this time, another major event was the invention of the magnetic core for storage. Magnetic cores are tiny rings (0.05 cm diameter) are made of ferrite and can be magnetized in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. Two directions are used to represent 0 and 1. A magnetic core is used to build large random access memories. Memory capacity in the second generation was about 100 KB (kilobytes). During this period, magnetic disk storage was also developed.

Transistors in different housings
Different types of Transistor
Computers are more reliable and have higher memory availability, resulting in the development of high-level languages. During this time FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol, and SNOBOL were developed. With the increase in CPU speed and the emergence of tape and disk storage, an operating system was developed. The good batch operating system, especially on IBM 7000 computers, emerged during the second generation.

Business applications grew rapidly during this period and dominated the use of computers in the mid-1960s. More than 80% of installed computers are used in business and industry, and all systems are batch oriented. Also, payroll, inventory, control marketing, production planning, and general ledger systems were developed.

Many applications of computational research such as linear programming Critical Path Methods (CPM) and simulation have become popular. Engineering applications, particularly in process control increased quickly.

New careers in the computer field, such as system analysts and programmers, appear in the second generation. Educational courses have also been started in computer science.

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